Angela Poff PhD discusses the metabolic origins of cancer and potential anticancer effects of ketones.*
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02:08 Metabolism and Cancer: There are certain hallmarks of cancer. Cancer cells need to keep dividing.
02:54 The Warburg Effect: Almost 100 years ago Otto Warburg showed that cancer cells don’t undergo normal energy metabolism.
04:36 Oxygen and the Warburg Effect: This process occurs whether oxygen is present or not. In normal cells, we utilize lactate fermentation when oxygen is limited. Cancer cells do this even when oxygen is present.
05:42 Mitochondrial Dysfunction: There is widespread mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer.
09:04 Cell Division: Every time your cell divides, it has to copy its DNA. Mistakes will be made, but we have repair mechanisms that survey and fix mutations.
09:47 Lactic Acid and Cancer: The cancer field views aerobic glycolysis, or the Warburg Effect, as a beneficial adaptation of tumors.
12:45 Fat Consumption and Cancer: Fatty acids and ketone bodies are converted into acetyl-coA to enter the metabolic pathways at the level of the Krebs cycle.
14:03 Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1 Alpha): Tumors grow under chaotic abnormal signaling properties. In order to grow past a certain size, the tumor needs to make its own new blood vessels. The chaos makes the blood vessel network abnormal and inadequate.
16:30 Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: At sea level, we breathe 20% oxygen. In HBOT, oxygen intake is increased to 100%.
19:02 Oxygen Free Radical Production: In some parts of the tumor there may be no oxygen and parts of the tumor may die.
20:10 Radiation Therapy and Oxygen: Radiation causes the formation of free radicals.
21:11 Oxygen Therapies for Treatment and Prevention:
22:38 Mitochondria Membranes: Healthy functioning mitochondria act as tumor suppressors. By preserving mitochondrial membrane, in turn helps to preserve mitochondrial function. A well formulated ketogenic diet helps with cell membrane integrity.
25:21 Insulin Signaling and Cancer: Insulin is a potent growth factor in cancers. Many cancer types upregulate insulin receptors and IGF receptors. Insulin promotes tumor growth.
26:20 Ketogenic Diet and Glucose: We don’t always get a remarkable drop in circulating blood glucose.
27:33 Pro-Oxidant Therapies: Oxidative stress is a double edged sword for cancer. Cancer cells at a basal level operate under more free radicals and more oxidative stress than our healthy tissues.
31:11 The Effects of Ketones: Ketones have anticancer effects. They have very important signaling and functional roles in our cells that have nothing to do with their role as energy metabolites.
33:09 Inflammation: It is a huge component in cancer origination and progression. Ketosis is anti-inflammatory. Beta hydroxybutyrate inhibits the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome that is activated during cancer, ageing and many chronic illnesses that incite inflammation.
35:56 Ketones and the Alterations in Oxidative Stress: Ketone metabolism decreases free radical production, reducing oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant capacity.
37:17 Ketones and Glycolysis: Some data suggests that ketones can inhibit glycolysis, an important pathway in cancer.
41:31 Restoring Anti-Tumor Immunity: The ketogenic diet restores anti-tumor immunity.
44:14 Ketogenic Cancer Benefits: There is not a lot of human data on the ketogenic diet and cancer. There are 12 clinical trials registered now.
46:44 Dr. Poff’s Morning Routine: She awakens early and spends quality time with her husband and pets.
48:27 Exogenous Ketones: The study of exogenous ketones is new. They have had a therapeutic effect in a wide variety of seizure models. Exogenous ketones are something that you consume that is either already a ketone or is converted into ketones in your body, or releases ketones.